Note, I have been taking many of the supplements you see here for a year or more. in most cases I started with smaller quantities and worked my way up. It’s especially important to do that with chelators and methylation supplements. Be careful! Never make decisions about dosing based on what’s easiest – either split capsules or tablets or order the right dose. You can get small increment doses of chelators from Livingnetwork.
I get most of my supplements from Iherb.com which I’ve been very happy with and if you use the links below you will get a $10 discount on your first order.
- Amino acids
- Antioxidants and fatty acids
- B vitamins
- Chelators etc
- Herbal & other
- Minerals and elements
- To try
- arginine - 6 g (added 5/24/13) – Arginine plays an important role in cell division, the healing of wounds, removing ammonia from the body, immune function, and the release of hormones. The benefits and functions attributed to oral supplementation of L-arginine include: 1) Precursor for the synthesis of nitric oxide (NO), 2) Reduces healing time of injuries by stimulating growth hormone release (particularly bone), 3) Quickens repair time of damaged tissue, and 4) Helps decrease blood pressure in clinical hypertensive subjects. Arginine is synthesized from citrulline by the sequential action of the cytosolic enzymes argininosuccinate synthetase (ASS) and argininosuccinate lyase (ASL). In terms of energy, this is costly, as the synthesis of each molecule of argininosuccinate requires hydrolysis of adenosine triphosphate (ATP) to adenosine monophosphate (AMP), i.e., two ATP equivalents. In essence, taking an excess of arginine gives more energy by saving ATPs that can be used elsewhere.
- carnitine fumarate – 2 g (added 5/30/13, take 30 min before meals) – Carnitine is a quaternary ammonium compound biosynthesized from the amino acids lysine and methionine. In living cells, it is required for the transport of fatty acids from the intermembraneous space in the mitochondria, into the mitochondrial matrix during the breakdown of lipids (fats) for the generation of metabolic energy. Your body makes it in the liver and kidneys and stores it in the skeletal muscles, heart, brain, and sperm. Usually, your body can make all the carnitine it needs. Some people, however, may not have enough carnitine because their bodies cannot make enough or can’t transport it into tissues so it can be used. Carnitine has been proposed as a treatment for many conditions because it acts as an antioxidant.
- lysine – 2 g (added 5/25/13) – Lysine is important for proper growth, and it plays an essential role in the production of carnitine, a nutrient responsible for converting fatty acids into energy and helping to lower cholesterol. Lysine appears to help the body absorb calcium, and it plays an important role in the formation of collagen, a substance important for bones and connective tissues including skin, tendon, and cartilage. According to Dr. Cutler, lysine also improves concentration ability and helps stimulate growth hormone release in combination with arginine.
- taurine – 1,000 mg – increases the action of insulin, improving glucose tolerance, and acts as an antioxidant, vital for the proper function of the minerals potassium, calcium, magnesium, and sodium. Taurine regulates heart rhythm, cardiac contraction, blood pressure, and platelet aggregation, and regulates the excitability of neurons. It detoxifies liver cells of various toxins. It helps form bile acids and maintains cell membrane stability. It reduces the synthesis of lipids and cholesterol that are associated with atherosclerosis. Protects against toxicity of various substances (such as lead and cadmium). Additionally, supplementation with taurine has been shown to prevent oxidative stress induced by exercise. In cells, taurine keeps potassium and magnesium inside the cell, while keeping excessive sodium out. In this sense, it works like a diuretic.
Antioxidants and fatty acids
- vitamin A – 20,000 iu – made from beta-carotene in the liver. Dr. Cutler recommends supplementing on the basis that mercury may be interfering with production of the active form in the liver. Conversion of beta-carotene to vitamin A is also inadequate if hypothyroid. May help with skin conditions including psoriasis. Most of the vitamin A varieties I found online come from large fish prone to mercury accumulation. I get one made from Atlantic cod which is lower on the mercury lists. Also listed on Freddd’s methylation protocol.
- vitamin C – 5 g (2 g liposmal, 4 g ascorbic acid) – gives me insomnia if I’m not careful – supports the adrenal glands and has for years been the one supplement that I can easily feel the benefit from within minutes of taking. I’ve also had intravenous vitamin C up to 50 g and generally believe the miracle-cure stories I’ve read about in The Clinical Guide to the Use of Vitamin C by Dr. Klenner. Vitamin C is on Dr. Cutler’s essential list, companion nutrients for iodine and Freddd’s methylation protocol.
- vitamin E – 1,200 iu gamma complex – NOW. According to Dr. Cutler, vitamin E protects the essential fatty acids and your cell membranes which are particularly vulnerable to mercury. Vitamin E is on Dr. Cutler’s essential list and Freddd’s methylation protocol. At one point, the NOW variety I use was recommended by Freddd.
- evening primrose oil – 1 g – a source of gamma linoleic acid (GLA), and Omega six essential fatty acid, used in the production of prostaglandins for limiting and controlling inflammation allergic response etc (Cutler). Initially, I used Borage oil, but found it gave me an upset stomach, possibly because the gel caps were much larger. The NOW brand comes in small or 500 mg softgels. Evening Primrose oil is apparently good for eczema.
- fish oil - 4,900 mg omega-3 (used to give me insomnia at normal recommended amounts) – Dr. Cutler says Mercury destroys EFA’s and the brain is especially high in EFA’s so therefore especially affected. Low EFAs can affect your energy level – reading this was an epiphany for me. In AI, Cutler only recommends fish oil for the first month or two of supplementation and then says that you will start making EPA and DHA from flax oil after a month or two. Based on the numbers shown here you would be getting much less DHA using Flax than you typically would from fish oil… Because omega-3 fats have given me many nights of insomnia, I’ve had a lot of questions about fish oil. Does it contain mercury? How necessary is it? etc. It comes in many different concentration levels and at some point, I may switch to one of the more concentrated varieties like Omegavia when my tolerance increases. For the time being, I’m going to continue using Nordic Naturals small sizes for kids. Fish oil is also listed as critical for basic healing on Freddd’s methylation protocol.
- sunflower lecithin – 2.4 g + ?? – taken for its phosphatidylcholine and phosphatidylserine content. I was eating eggs for choline but decided to switch to a supplement to avoid the sulfur in eggs. I’m also getting a significant but unknown extra quantity in the Liposomal vitamin C that I use. According to Dr. Cutler “phosphatidylcholine is used to make cell membranes which is the part of the body Mercury beats up the most and is used to make the neurotransmitter acetylcholine in the brain . . . Phosphatidylserine helps make better brain cell membranes. It is a good antidepressant and brain tonic – much more effective than phosphatidylcholine and lecithin.” Also recommended by Rich Van K as part of his Simplified Methylation Protocol. From NIH: Humans ingest approximately 50 mmol of methyl groups per day; 60% of them are derived from choline. Transmethylation metabolic pathways closely interconnect choline, methionine, methyltetrahydrofolate (methyl-THF) and vitamins B-6 and B-12.
- B-1 – 50 mg to 100 mg – helps the liver process whatever doesn’t belong in your body. Of special interest to me is Dr. Cutler’s statement “allows people [...] who are very sensitive to choline precursors like DMAE to use more of them.” This has something to do with B-1′s ability to block the M1 acetylcholine receptor. Although I don’t understand what this is all about, my attention is drawn because I don’t tolerate phosphatidylcholine or omega-3 well and I have a touch of MCS. Omega-3 is known to boost acetylcholine levels, so my hypothesis is that it could be an increases in acetylcholine which cause my insomnia. Therefore, maybe vitamin B1 can help me tolerate more fish oil. In any case, in HTI, Dr. Cutler mentions that “arsenic interferes with the utilization of vitamin B1, with the production of acetylcholine and with the transfer of pyruvate into the mitochondria. Reduced thiamine utilization impairs the conversion of food into energy and leads to fatigue, poor healing and impaired thinking.” There’s also a chance that supplementing thiamine may aid cadmium chelation. So for all these reasons, I’m going to keep supplementing vitamin B1 and I’ve decided to switch over to the active form, Benfotiamine and have ordered this. Note, some people have found that high doses (1800 mg) of thiamine can reverse chronic fatigue.
- B-2 / riboflavin – 36 mg – plays a key role in energy metabolism and metabolism of fats, carbohydrates and proteins. According to Dr. Cutler, it is absorbed better in divided doses (he recommends 50 to 100 mg total). Seems to be very effective for migraines and is the vitamin that gives B complex preparations their yellow color, and makes your urine florescent yellow. The name “riboflavin” comes from “ribose” (the sugar whose reduced form, ribitol, forms part of its structure) – that caught my eye because I also use D-Ribose before and after exercising on Freddd’s recommendation. May accelerate methylation causing insatiable hypokalemia according to Freddd.
- B-3 / niacin – 100 mg – reading about niacin is very confusing so you might want to start with something simplistic like the University of Maryland page before moving on to AI or Wikipedia. I take niacin because it is a companion supplement for iodine (says to avoid niacinimide) and I like the fact that it’s involved in DNA repair and adrenal function. It also quenches methylation by using up methyl groups (use regular niacin for this if you get overstimulated on methylation supports). It speeds up phase I metabolism and increases brain circulation. Lowers copper levels too.
- B-5 / pantethine – 900 mg (500mg w/ breakfast, lunch, dinner) – considered the more biologically active form of vitamin B5. Supports the liver and adrenal function. Also used in the synthesis of CoA which plays a role in the Krebs cycle and synthesis of fatty acids, cholesterol and acetylcholine.
- B-6 / pyridoxal phosphate (P5P) – 250 mg (added when hair test showed essential element ratios indicate need for more B6) – this is the active form of vitamin B6. According to Dr. Cutler, mercury causes chronic fatigue by interfering with brain uptake of vitamin B-6 and B12. It sits solidly on the methylation map: 1) amino acid metabolism – critical for trans-sulfuration (p5p is a coenzyme needed for the proper function of the enzymes cystathionine synthase and cystathionase which work to transform methionine into cysteine) and transamination including creating serotonin from tryptophan, GABA from glutamate and dopamine from dihyroxyphenylalanine, 2) gluconeogenesis – catalyzes reactions essential for providing amino acids used as substrates for gluconeogenesis, is a required coenzyme of glycogen phosphorylase, the enzyme necessary for breakdown of glycogen to glucose to occur in muscle and liver tissue and 3) lipid metabolism – an essential component of enzymes that facilitate synthesis of sphingolipids which have particular impact on neural tissue and 4) metabolic function – involved in histamine synthesis, hemoglobin synthesis and function and gene expression.
- B-7 / biotin – 20 mg – In HTI, Dr. Cutler notes that biotin opposes the toxic effects of thallium and suggest taking 5 to 10 mg with meals and at bedtime. My urine challenge test showed moderate thallium. Oddly, my hair test showed none. Biotin is a co-enzyme for carboxylase enzymes involved in the synthesis of fatty acids, cholesterol and gluconeogenesis. From the Linus Pauling Institute: “Reductions in blood glucose levels were found in seven insulin-dependent (type 1) diabetics after one week of supplementation with 16,000 mcg of biotin daily (28). Several mechanisms could explain a possible blood glucose-lowering effect of biotin. As a cofactor of enzymes required for fatty acid synthesis, biotin may increase the utilization of glucose for fat synthesis. Biotin has been found to stimulate glucokinase, a liver enzyme that increases synthesis of glycogen, the storage form of glucose. Biotin has also been found to stimulate the secretion of insulin in the pancreas of rats, which also has the effect of lowering blood glucose (29).”
- B-9 / folate – 4 mg – folate plays a significant role in the methylation cycle, and in AI, Dr. Cutler recommends 1.6 to 10 mg saying that “folate is generally safe and helpful and most people benefit from 3 mg per day”. I use the active form from Solgar because some people don’t convert well from folic acid. As one FDC member put it “I wasted years of better health by not trying methylfolate sooner when I had the chance. When a doctor suggested I try Folapro several years ago, I dismissed it as a fad and erroneously thought that I was fine taking 2400 mcg of regular folate a day.” One of the functions of methylfolate is to increase absorption and retention in the body of both adb12 and mb12. Best if taken twice a day. Note, that many people are very sensitive to folate and can have strong start up reactions which may include anxiety, jitters, lightheadedness, fatigue, headache etc.
- B-12 / methylcobalamin – 5 mg (when I reached 5 mg with 3.2 mg folate the first time around, I had a strong reaction, so I’m titrating up again from a much lower starting point) – also called cobalamin, plays a key role in the methylation cycle and normal functioning of the brain and nervous system, and the formation of blood. It is involved in the metabolism of every cell of the human body, especially affecting DNA synthesis and regulation, but also fatty acid synthesis and energy production. B12 deficiency symptoms are wide ranging and serious enough to destroy your life but healing begins within minutes of supplementing. Best taken sublingually under the upper lip several times a day (brand matters with this one – I’m using Enzymatic Therapy and Jarrow is okay too).
- B-12 / dibencozide – 4 mg – one of the active forms of vitamin B12, also known as cobamamide, adenosylcobalamin or adb12, it generally has much milder and fewer startup reactions. Said to populate the neural mitochondria, energizing the central nervous system in a very pleasant way, improving mood and clarity of thought. Forms part of the Krebs cycle for production of energy. Best taken once a day early in the morning to avoid interference with sleep.
- dimercaptosuccinic acid (DMSA) – 50 mg (every 2 hrs) – binds lead and mercury to remove it from your body (but does not cross the blood brain barrier). With a half-life of 2 1/2 to 3 1/2 hours it should be taken at least every four hours (including night doses) for at least three days at a time. May aggravate or cause neutropenia according to Dr. Cutler. Causes heavy oxidative stress, so very important to take antioxidants while chelating. Also effective for chelating antimony, bismuth, cadmium, thallium, and possibly nickel, tungsten, palladium, platinum, silver, gold and arsenic.
- alpha lipoic acid (ALA) - 60 mg (every 2 hrs) – binds mercury like DMSA but also has the advantage of crossing the blood brain barrier to chelate mercury from your brain (and internal organs). According to Dr. Cutler, the effectiveness of ALA with lead is unknown but may possibly remove it from the brain along with mercury. Increases liver secretion of bile, darkening and loosening stools. Like DMSA, it must be taken every 3 to 4 hours (including night doses ) for minimum of three days at a time. Also useful for chelating antimony, arsenic, palladium, platinum, thallium and possibly cadmium, tungsten, lead and silver. Apart from its properties as a chelator, Alpha-lipoic acid is an antioxidant that is made by the body and is found in every cell, where it helps turn glucose into energy (reactions involving two key enzyme complexes of the Krebs Cycle require ALA as a cofactor). Other antioxidants work only in water (such as vitamin C) or fatty tissues (such as vitamin E), but alpha-lipoic acid is both fat- and water-soluble. That means it can work throughout the body. You can expect Lipoic Acid to exacerbate the following symptoms: increased urine volume, obsessive thinking, emotional volatility, difficulty relating to people, and apathy. Your liver will excrete more inorganic mercury but less methylmercury, copper, zinc and cadmium. ALA is listed on Freddd’s methylation protocol as a possibly critical show-stopper cofactor.
- hydrocortisone – 22.5 mg
- DHEA - 35 mg – the most common hormone precursor in the body, is intimately associated with youthful and healthy functioning across a range of physiological systems. Used for slowing or reversing aging, improving thinking skills in older people, and slowing the progress of Alzheimer’s disease. Athletes and other people use DHEA to increase muscle mass, strength, and energy. But DHEA use is banned by the National Collegiate Athletic Association (NCAA). DHEA is also used by men for erectile dysfunction (ED), and by healthy women and women who have low levels of certain hormones to improve well-being and sexuality. Some people try DHEA to treat systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE), weak bones (osteoporosis), multiple sclerosis (MS), low levels of steroid hormones (Addison’s disease), depression, schizophrenia, chronic fatigue syndrome (CFS), and to slow the progression of Parkinson’s disease. It is also used for preventing heart disease, breast cancer, diabetes, and metabolic syndrome.
- vitamin D - 1,200 IU (ranging up to 4,000 IU) - Vitamin D, also known as the ‘sunshine vitamin’, is a steroid hormone precursor. It was originally thought to play a role only in the mineralization of bones and teeth by maintaining the correct phosphorous/calcium ratio. But over time research has linked low vitamin D levels with obesity, diabetes, depression, cardiovascular disease, autoimmune disease, osteoporosis and cancer. According to the CDC, in 2006 a whopping one fourth of the population was deficient in vitamin D.
- pregnenolone – 10 mg – improves energy, vision, memory, clarity of thinking, wellbeing.
Herbal and other
- D-Ribose – 20 g – D-ribose is a simple sugar molecule with a wealth of functions in human and animal biology. Perhaps its most fundamental role is as a component of ATP, the universal energy carrier in the body’s cells. ATP molecules store energy as they are built up and release it as they are broken down—the more energy a cell requires, the more ATP it consumes. In fact, humans “burn” an amount of ATP equivalent to their own body weight every day! Every single process undergone by living cells requires energy—even at rest, we are continually breaking down ATP molecules. And that means that we have a constant need for the components of ATP molecules, including D-ribose. Cells can make new supplies of D-ribose, but the process is considerably slower than the breakdown of ATP—this can leave a substantial “deficit” in the amount of energy a cell can utilize. In fact, it has been shown that even an overnight rest period is not long enough for a person to recover their normal ATP levels after a bout of strenuous exercise. When cells don’t have enough D-ribose to restore ATP levels quickly back to normal, they turn to alternate energy-generating processes. These are less efficient and produce much higher levels of damaging waste products that cause muscle burning and cramping and that can also inflict long-term damage through the oxidant stress they induce in muscle and heart tissues, leading to further dysfunction, injury, and pain. Fortunately, research is demonstrating that ATP levels can be speedily brought back to normal if sufficient D-ribose is available. Starting dose for people with fibromyalgia – 15 to 30 g per day. According to Freddd, D-Ribose “enhances adenosylb12, l-carnitine, alpha lipoic acid, improves exercise recovery and energy.”
- milk thistle – 4 caps (for liver support)
- vitamin K complex – 1 mg (mk-7 for low calcium) – Your body needs vitamin K for two important reasons; to help wounds heal properly, by making sure your blood clots, and to keep your bones strong and healthy. There is also some research which shows that vitamin K may help to protect against developing conditions like heart disease, prostate cancer and Alzheimer’s disease. Vitamin K is important in making sure that the calcium you get from foods or supplements is used in your bones. Vitamin D and vitamin K work together to strengthen your bones and to help them develop properly. There are two main types of vitamin K: Vitamin K1, which comes from leafy green vegetables like kale, chard and spinach. Vitamin K2, which comes from meats (organ meats in particular, such as liver), eggs, insects and hard cheeses. This type of vitamin K2 is called MK-4. There is also a different kind of vitamin K2, called MK-7, which comes from natto.
- CoQ10 – 300 mg - The synthesis of CoQ10 in the body requires methylation (this also accounts for deficits in a variety of other important substances, including carnitine, choline, and creatine). This oil-soluble, vitamin-like substance is present in most eukaryotic cells, primarily in the mitochondria. It is a component of the electron transport chain and participates in aerobic cellular respiration, functioning in every cell of the body to synthesize energy in the form of ATP. Ninety-five percent of the human body’s energy is generated this way. Therefore, those organs with the highest energy requirements—such as the heart, liver and kidney—have the highest CoQ10 concentrations. Meat and fish are the richest source of dietary CoQ10 and levels over 50 mg/kg can be found in beef, pork, and chicken heart, and in chicken liver. Dairy products are much poorer sources of CoQ10 compared to animal tissues. Vegetable oils are also quite rich in CoQ10. Broccoli, grape, and cauliflower are modest sources of CoQ10. Most fruit and berries represent a poor to very poor source of CoQ10, with the exception of avocado, with a relatively high CoQ10 content. If you take either form of Q10, some of it is readily converted to the other form to maintain this condition of equilibrium. The reason I call the older form of this nutrient energy-Q10 is because it is the form of Q10 that is used in your mitochondria3 to make energy. Not surprisingly, this rather simple and important fact is omitted by those trying to push the more expensive version. Furthermore, this energy-Q10 is turning out to be a major cell communication regulation molecule, as it has been shown to significantly activate over 694 different genes4! This includes the reduction of the primary inflammatory gene signal, NF-kappaB 5. The energy-Q10 form also enables you to activate uncoupling proteins6 when you exercise, increasing the amount of fat you can burn off. Hardly an inferior substance.
- PQQ - 20 mg – has been shown to induce mitochondrial biogenesis. While CoQ10 optimizes mitochondrial function, PQQ activates genes that govern mitochondrial reproduction, protection, and repair. PQQ also affords potent cardioprotection and defense against neuronal (brain) degeneration. Published studies show that 20 mg of PQQ plus 300 mg of CoQ10 may reverse age-related cognitive decline in aging humans.
- trimethyglycine (TMG) – 1,000 mg (methylation support, protects liver cells from toxins, may increase alertness and mood)
- S-Adenosylmethionine (SAMe) – 800 mg- is a naturally occurring compound that is found in almost every tissue and fluid in the body. It is involved in many important processes. SAMe plays a role in the immune system, maintains cell membranes, and helps produce and break down brain chemicals, such as serotonin, melatonin, and dopamine. It works with vitamin B12 and folate (vitamin B9). Being deficient in either vitamin B12 or folate may reduce levels of SAMe in your body. Numerous scientific studies have shown that SAMe helps relieve the pain of osteoarthritis, and other studies suggest that SAMe may help treat depression. Researchers have also examined SAMe’s use in the treatment of fibromyalgia and liver disease, with mixed results. SAMe has been on Life Extension’s TOP TEN list (for 15+ years) of the most important steps to take to ensure optimal longevity. SAMe has been recommended to aging individuals not to just feel better, but also to protect the brain, liver, joints, and other tissues of the body like no other substance.
- quercetin (bioflavinoid complex) – 3 caps – belongs to a group of plant pigments called flavonoids that give many fruits, flowers, and vegetables their color. Flavonoids, such as quercetin, are antioxidants. Quercetin acts like an antihistamine and an anti-inflammatory, and may help protect against heart disease and cancer. Quercetin can also help stabilize the cells that release histamine in the body and thereby have an anti-inflammatory effect. Both animal and human data suggest quercetin stimulates mitochondrial biogenesis. In the most recent study, published in February 2010, the Boone group used quercetin alone, but not in athletes. Instead they conducted their trial with untrained individuals. Even without the addition of green tea and fish oil, they reported a distinct benefit. In this study, 26 adult males took quercetin (1,000 mg/day) or a placebo. They were given 12-minute time trials on treadmills. Those taking quercetin went almost 3% farther during their 2nd time trial, while those taking placebo actually went about 1% less than their initial distance on their 2nd attempt. Some of the studies about quercetin’s effect on exercise performance have paid particular attention to the effect on mitochondria and suggest a novel clinical use: increasing mitochondrial function within cells. If this proves true, then quercetin may not only be useful to increase performance, but also potentially to treat fatigue of mitochondrial origin.
Minerals and elements
- boron chelate - 3 mg – vitally involved in bone metabolism. Boron is distributed throughout the body with the highest concentration in the parathyroid glands, followed by bones and dental enamel. It is essential for healthy bone and joint function, regulating the absorption and metabolism of calcium, magnesium and phosphorus through its influence on the parathyroid glands. Boron is for the parathyroids what iodine is for the thyroid. Enhances Vitamin D, inhibits enzymes that mediate the inflammatory cascade and are pertinent to therapies directed against inflammatory conditions, appears to play a significant role in human brain function and cognitive performance, and that it is an essential nutrient. Boron elevates circulation of serum concentrations of testosterone. Signs of possible deficiency include ADD/ADHD, osteoporosis, arthritis, fatigue, decreased motor function, decreased short-term memory, decreased brain function, and increased loss of calcium and magnesium in the urine. Reacts with Fluorine, Bromine and Chlorine as per Dr. Orlee. Non Toxic: Doses up to 18 mg of boron daily appear to be safe for adults even if taken for prolonged periods of time. Listed peripherally on companion nutrients for iodine page.
calcium– 65 mg (as calcium ascorbate, 55 mg per capsule) – In AI, Dr. Cutler says “mercury and other heavy metal toxins (including methylmercury) interfere with calcium metabolism.” and he recommends 500 mg per day.
- chromium piccolinate – 1,000 mcg – in some studies chromium supplementation has been shown to improve some measure of glucose utilization. Blood sugar metabolism is often deranged by mercury and Dr. Cutler recommends 200 mcg with every meal plus some extra for 1000 mcg a day.
- iodine – 37.5 mg Iodoral + topical (keep away from Vit C) – I was clearly deficient in iodine before titrating up as evidenced by the rise in my body temperature. The Weston Price Foundation discusses iodine with this preface: Iodine is critical to human health, forming the basis of thyroid hormones and playing many other roles in human biochemistry. While the thyroid gland contains the body’s highest concentration of iodine, the salivary glands, brain, cerebrospinal fluid, gastric mucosea, breasts, ovaries and a part of the eye also concentrate iodine. In the brain, iodine is found in the choroid plexus, the area on the ventricles of the brain where cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) is produced, and in the substantia nigra, an area associated with Parkinson’s disease.
- lithium orotate – 5 mg per week – lithium deficiency is commonly found with mercury toxicity and my hair test shows a good example. Small amounts of lithium have been found useful for improving mood, and lithium is known to function in iodine management and as a neuroprotective agent. Some find it causes a touch of brain fog and take it at bedtime for that reason (dosing discussion here).
- magnesium glycinate – 2,300 mg (switched from citrate for better absorption/bowel tolerance) – Magnesium is needed for more than 300 biochemical reactions in the body. It helps maintain normal muscle and nerve function, keeps heart rhythm steady, supports a healthy immune system, and keeps bones strong. Magnesium also helps regulate blood sugar levels, promotes normal blood pressure, and is known to be involved in energy metabolism and protein synthesis.
- magnesium threonate – use just occasionally for headache – scientists have been challenged to find a way to raise magnesium levels in the brain. Even intravenous infusions cause only a modest elevation of magnesium levels in the central nervous system. Researchers from the Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT) recently found a way to surmount this obstacle. They formulated a new magnesium compound called magnesium-L-threonate or MgT that in lab tests allows for oral administration while maximizing magnesium “loading” into the brain. Based on prior research, they meticulously documented that increased levels of magnesium in the brain promote synaptic density and plasticity in the hippocampus. Up until now, however, no widely available forms of magnesium met the criteria needed for rapid absorption and efficient transfer into the central nervous system. By contrast, MgT yielded compelling results. MgT oral supplements increased magnesium levels in spinal fluid, an index of measurement in brain magnesium by about 15%, while none of the other magnesium compounds tested produced significant elevations.8 While a 15% increase may not sound like a lot, it induced a profound effect on neurological function. MGT has been shown to enhance memory and cognitive performance in multiple tests and anecdotally to improve sleep.
manganese – 8 mg– Manganese is a trace mineral that is present in tiny amounts in the body. Consuming more than 11 mg per day of manganese could cause serious and harmful side effects. It is found mostly in bones, the liver, kidneys, and pancreas. Manganese helps the body form connective tissue, bones, blood clotting factors, and sex hormones. It also plays a role in fat and carbohydrate metabolism, calcium absorption, and blood sugar regulation. Manganese is also necessary for normal brain and nerve function. Manganese is a component of the antioxidant enzyme superoxide dismutase (SOD), which helps fight free radicals. Free radicals occur naturally in the body but can damage cell membranes and DNA. They may play a role in aging, as well as the development of a number of health conditions, including heart disease and cancer. Antioxidants, such as SOD, can help neutralize free radicals and reduce or even help prevent some of the damage they cause. Low levels of manganese in the body can contribute to infertility, bone malformation, weakness, and seizures.
- molybdenum -
1,000 mcg – according to Dr. Cutler, molybdenum is a cofactor for three enzymes often impaired in mercury toxicity. The biological form of the molybdenum atom is an organic molecule known as the molybdenum cofactor (Moco) present in the active site of Moco-containing enzymes (molybdoenzymes). In humans, molybdenum is known to function as a cofactor for four enzymes: 1- Sulfite oxidase (known to be crucial for human health) catalyzes the transformation of sulfite to sulfate, a reaction that is necessary for the metabolism of sulfur-containing amino acids (methionine and cysteine). 2- Xanthine oxidase catalyzes the breakdown of nucleotides (precursors to DNA and RNA) to form uric acid, which contributes to the plasma antioxidant capacity of the blood. 3- Aldehyde oxidase and xanthine oxidase catalyze hydroxylation reactions that involve a number of different molecules with similar chemical structures. Xanthine oxidase and aldehyde oxidase also play a role in the metabolism of drugs and toxins. 4- Mitochondrial amidoxime reducing component (mARC) was described only recently, and its precise function is under investigation. Initial studies showed that mARC forms a three-component enzyme system with cytochrome b5 and NADH cytochrome b5 reductase that catalyzes the detoxification of mutagenic N-hydroxylated bases.
- potassium gluconate and potassium chloride – 5,300 mg – listed on Freddd’s methylation protocol as an absolutely critical supplement for basic healing to insure against hypokalemia (potentially fatal) triggered by sudden healing. Symptoms include weakness, lack of energy, muscle cramps, stomach disturbances, an irregular heartbeat, and an abnormal EKG. Hypokalemia is usually caused by the body losing too much potassium in the urine or intestines; it’s rarely caused by a lack of potassium in the diet. Potassium is a very important mineral for the proper function of all cells, tissues, and organs in the human body. It is also an electrolyte, a substance that conducts electricity in the body, along with sodium, chloride, calcium, and magnesium. Potassium is crucial to heart function and plays a key role in skeletal and smooth muscle contraction, making it important for normal digestive and muscular function. Many foods contain potassium, including all meats, some types of fish (such as salmon, cod, and flounder), and many fruits, vegetables, and legumes. Dairy products are also good sources of potassium. Side effects can include diarrhea, stomach irritation, and nausea. At higher doses, muscle weakness, slowed heart rate, and abnormal heart rhythm may occur. Contact your health care provider if you develop severe stomach pain, irregular heartbeat, chest pain, or other symptoms.
- selenium – 200 mcg – Dr. Cutler notes that selenium binds mercury tightly making less available for its other important roles. Toxicity can occur at fairly low doses so watch out for side effects like heart arrhythmias, insomnia and irritability. At the beginning of the 1990s it was discovered that the deiodinase enzymes which convert T4 (thyroxin, the thyroid prohormone) into T3 (triiodothyronine, the cellularly active hormone) are selenium enzymes (formed with the amino acid cysteine). This discovery has led to a lot of research studies on the effects of selenium, iodine, and their interactions revealing that selenium protects the thyroid from sustaining damage which can lead ultimately to cancer. Selenium also performs other important roles in the body – the most important of which is probably its role as the body’s best antioxidant (anti-peroxidant). It performs this role as part of glutathione peroxidase (GSHPx or GPX). As part of GPX, selenium prevents lipids and fats from being peroxidized (oxidized), which literally means that it prevents fats from going rancid (this can be seen on your skin as “age spots” or “liver spots” (autopsies show that skin “liver spots” are accompanied by similar spots of peroxidized fats in the liver.) Therefore selenium protects all of the cellular membranes, which are made up of fats, from peroxidation. Peroxidation of cellular membranes reduces the ability of the membrane to pass nutrients including minerals and vitamins, so selenium deficiency is the first step toward developing the many problems caused by nutrient deficiencies.
- strontium citrate – 340 mg – for osteoporosis, on off-round days only – Strontium ranelate is registered as a prescription drug in more than 70 countries for the treatment of post-menopausal osteoporosis to reduce the risk of vertebral and hip fractures. In the United States, Strontium Ranelate is not approved by the FDA. I use strontium citrate which does not have a Wikipedia page yet but if you search online you will find lots of testimonials from people who’ve used it successfully to restore their bone density.
vanadium sulfate – 10 mg (at breakfast) – improves insulin sensitivity and benefits may endure after use of vanadium sulfate is discontinued.
- zinc citrate - 60 mg – according to Dr. Cutler, zinc is competitive with mercury and copper thereby diminishing some of their toxic effects. he also notes that zinc should be reduced from 100 to 50 mg after you start chelation with Lipoic Acid. Zinc is involved in numerous aspects of cellular metabolism. It is required for the catalytic activity of approximately 100 enzymes and it plays a role in immune function, protein synthesis, wound healing, DNA synthesis, and cell division. Zinc also supports normal growth and development during pregnancy, childhood, and adolescence and is required for proper sense of taste and smell. A daily intake of zinc is required to maintain a steady state because the body has no specialized zinc storage system.
- glutamine – helps keep the brain functioning according to Cutler and used by the liver to make blood sugar. It’s one of the amino acids in glutathione and best used (Dr. Cutler again) by taking four parts NAC, to two parts glutamine, to one part glycine between meals. confusing because Fred says to avoid all the glutathione precursors. Glutamine is the most abundant amino acid (building block of protein) in the body. The body can make enough glutamine for its regular needs, but under extreme stress (the kind you would experience after very heavy exercise or an injury), your body may need more glutamine than it can make. Most glutamine is stored in muscles followed by the lungs, where much of the glutamine is made. Glutamine is important for removing excess ammonia (a common waste product in the body). It also helps your immune system function and appears to be needed for normal brain function and digestion. Glutamine plays a role in a variety of biochemical functions: 1- protein synthesis, as any other of the 20 proteinogenic amino acids, 2- regulation of acid-base balance in the kidney by producing ammonium, 3- cellular energy, as a source, next to glucose, 4- nitrogen donation for many anabolic processes, including the synthesis of purines, 5- carbon donation, as a source, refilling the citric acid cycle, and 6- nontoxic transporter of ammonia in the blood circulation.
- N-acetylcysteine (NAC) – recommended by Dr. Cutler in the 500 to 4,000 mg range for raising blood glutathione. He says that people who are sensitive to paint fumes exhaust or the preservatives BHT, BHA, and TBHQ and other hydrocarbons are most likely to benefit. NAC is a slightly modified version of the sulfur-containing amino acid cysteine. When taken internally, NAC replenishes intracellular levels of the natural antioxidant glutathione (GSH, often deficient with advancing age and in chronic illness), helping to restore cells’ ability to fight damage from reactive oxygen species (ROS). NAC also regulates expression of scores of genes in the pathways that link oxidative stress to inflammation. These dual effects give NAC a unique role in the prevention and treatment of many common diseases, both acute and chronic. NAC can protect against avian influenza and more common seasonal flu symptoms. NAC protects tissues from the effects of exercise-induced oxidative stress, adding value and safety to your workout. NAC improves insulin sensitivity in people with some of the most difficult-to-treat metabolic disorders. NAC blocks cancer development at virtually every step in the process, and through multiple mechanisms, making it an important cancer chemopreventive agent.
- glycine – Glycine is an amino acid and neurotransmitter that serves both stimulatory and depressant roles in the brain. Three grams 1 hour before bedtime may improve sleep quality. Tastes like sugar. Per Cutler: an amino acid that aids in healing the digestive tract and boosting glutathione.
- DMPS – is an extracellular chelating agent that cannot enter cells but binds with heavy metals in fluids surrounding cells and in the blood. It also can’t cross the blood brain barrier. Its primary use seems to be in mopping up the mercury that is freed by the use of ALA. Dr. Cutler says it suppresses symptoms very well and recommends using on an eight hour schedule which makes it much easier to use than DMSA. According to Dr. Cutler, orally administered DMPS relieves symptoms more promptly and completely than DMSA and is often tolerated better. He says too that DMPS increases the excretion of mercury in the urine but not in the feces. As for the metals DMPS will chelate, there is some disagreement between author David Hammond who recommends it for removing mercury, arsenic, lead, antimony and copper, and Dr. Cutler who calls it a chelator for mercury and arsenic.