- vitamin A – 20,000 iu – made from beta-carotene in the liver. Dr. Cutler recommends supplementing on the basis that mercury may be interfering with production of the active form in the liver. Conversion of beta-carotene to vitamin A is also inadequate if hypothyroid. May help with skin conditions including psoriasis. Most of the vitamin A varieties I found online come from large fish prone to mercury accumulation. I get one made from Atlantic cod which is lower on the mercury lists. Also listed on Freddd’s methylation protocol.
- vitamin C – 5 g (1 g liposmal, 4 g ascorbic acid) – gives me insomnia if I’m not careful – supports the adrenal glands and has for years been the one supplement that I can easily feel the benefit from within minutes of taking. I use the buffered form from NOW. I’ve also had intravenous vitamin C up to 50 g and generally believe the miracle-cure stories I’ve read about in The Clinical Guide to the Use of Vitamin C by Dr. Klenner. Vitamin C is on Dr. Cutler’s essential list, companion nutrients for iodine and Freddd’s methylation protocol.
- vitamin E – 1,200 iu gamma complex – NOW. According to Dr. Cutler, vitamin E protects the essential fatty acids and your cell membranes which are particularly vulnerable to mercury. Vitamin E is on Dr. Cutler’s essential list and Freddd’s methylation protocol. At one point, the NOW variety I use was recommended by Freddd.
- evening primrose oil – 1 g – a source of gamma linoleic acid (GLA), and Omega six essential fatty acid, used in the production of prostaglandins for limiting and controlling inflammation allergic response etc (Cutler). Initially, I used Borage oil, but found it gave me an upset stomach, possibly because the gel caps were much larger. The NOW brand comes in small or 500 mg softgels. Evening Primrose oil is apparently good for eczema.
- fish oil - 3,200 mg omega-3 (used to give me insomnia at normal recommended amounts) – Dr. Cutler says Mercury destroys EFA’s and the brain is especially high in EFA’s so therefore especially affected. Low EFAs can affect your energy level – reading this was an epiphany for me. In AI, Cutler only recommends fish oil for the first month or two of supplementation and then says that you will start making EPA and DHA from flax oil after a month or two. Based on the numbers shown here you would be getting much less DHA using Flax than you typically would from fish oil… Because omega-3 fats have given me many nights of insomnia, I’ve had a lot of questions about fish oil. Does it contain mercury? How necessary is it? etc. It comes in many different concentration levels and at some point, I may switch to one of the more concentrated varieties like Omegavia when my tolerance increases. For the time being, I’m going to continue using Nordic Naturals small sizes for kids. Fish oil is also listed as critical for basic healing on Freddd’s methylation protocol.
- B-1 / benfotiamine – 480 mg – helps the liver process whatever doesn’t belong in your body. Of special interest to me is Dr. Cutler’s statement “allows people [...] who are very sensitive to choline precursors like DMAE to use more of them.” This has something to do with B-1′s ability to block the M1 acetylcholine receptor. Although I don’t understand what this is all about, my attention is drawn because I don’t tolerate phosphatidylcholine or omega-3 well and I have a touch of MCS. Omega-3 is known to boost acetylcholine levels, so my hypothesis is that it could be an increases in acetylcholine which cause my insomnia. Therefore, maybe vitamin B1 can help me tolerate more fish oil. In any case, in HTI, Dr. Cutler mentions that “arsenic interferes with the utilization of vitamin B1, with the production of acetylcholine and with the transfer of pyruvate into the mitochondria. Reduced thiamine utilization impairs the conversion of food into energy and leads to fatigue, poor healing and impaired thinking.” There’s also a chance that supplementing thiamine may aid cadmium chelation. So for all these reasons, I’m going to keep supplementing vitamin B1 and I’ve decided to switch over to the active form, Benfotiamine and have ordered this..
- B-2 / riboflavin – 100 mg – plays a key role in energy metabolism and metabolism of fats, carbohydrates and proteins. According to Dr. Cutler, it is absorbed better in divided doses (he recommends 50 to 100 mg total). Seems to be very effective for migraines and is the vitamin that gives B complex preparations their yellow color, and makes your urine florescent yellow. The name “riboflavin” comes from “ribose” (the sugar whose reduced form, ribitol, forms part of its structure) – that caught my eye because I also use D-Ribose before and after exercising on Freddd’s recommendation. May accelerate methylation causing insatiable hypokalemia according to Freddd.
- B-3 / niacin – 100 mg – reading about niacin is very confusing so you might want to start with something simplistic like the University of Maryland page before moving on to AI or Wikipedia. I take niacin because it is a companion supplement for iodine (says to avoid niacinimide) and I like the fact that it’s involved in DNA repair and adrenal function. It also quenches methylation by using up methyl groups (use regular niacin for this if you get overstimulated on methylation supports). It speeds up phase I metabolism and increases brain circulation. Lowers copper levels too.
- B-3 / niacinamide – 200 mg – anti-depressive at 1 to 3 g per day, slows down phase 1 metabolism (AI).
- B-5 / pantothenic acid – 1,500 mg (500mg w/ breakfast, lunch, dinner) – supports the liver and adrenal function. Also used in the synthesis of CoA which plays a role in the Krebs cycle and synthesis of fatty acids, cholesterol and acetylcholine.
- B-6 / pyridoxal phosphate (P5P) – 250 mg (added when hair test showed essential element ratios indicate need for more B6) – this is the active form of vitamin B6. According to Dr. Cutler, mercury causes chronic fatigue by interfering with brain uptake of vitamin B-6 and B12. It sits solidly on the methylation map: 1) amino acid metabolism – critical for trans-sulfuration (p5p is a coenzyme needed for the proper function of the enzymes cystathionine synthase and cystathionase which work to transform methionine into cysteine) and transamination including creating serotonin from tryptophan, GABA from glutamate and dopamine from dihyroxyphenylalanine, 2) gluconeogenesis – catalyzes reactions essential for providing amino acids used as substrates for gluconeogenesis, is a required coenzyme of glycogen phosphorylase, the enzyme necessary for breakdown of glycogen to glucose to occur in muscle and liver tissue and 3) lipid metabolism – an essential component of enzymes that facilitate synthesis of sphingolipids which have particular impact on neural tissue and 4) metabolic function – involved in histamine synthesis, hemoglobin synthesis and function and gene expression.
- B-7 / biotin – 20 mg – In HTI, Dr. Cutler notes that biotin opposes the toxic effects of thallium and suggest taking 5 to 10 mg with meals and at bedtime. My urine challenge test showed moderate thallium. Oddly, my hair test showed none. Biotin is a co-enzyme for carboxylase enzymes involved in the synthesis of fatty acids, cholesterol and gluconeogenesis. From the Linus Pauling Institute: “Reductions in blood glucose levels were found in seven insulin-dependent (type 1) diabetics after one week of supplementation with 16,000 mcg of biotin daily (28). Several mechanisms could explain a possible blood glucose-lowering effect of biotin. As a cofactor of enzymes required for fatty acid synthesis, biotin may increase the utilization of glucose for fat synthesis. Biotin has been found to stimulate glucokinase, a liver enzyme that increases synthesis of glycogen, the storage form of glucose. Biotin has also been found to stimulate the secretion of insulin in the pancreas of rats, which also has the effect of lowering blood glucose (29).”
- B-9 / folate – 2,800 mcg – folate plays a significant role in the methylation cycle, and in AI, Dr. Cutler recommends 1.6 to 10 mg saying that “folate is generally safe and helpful and most people benefit from 3 mg per day”. I use the active form from Solgar because some people don’t convert well from folic acid. As one FDC member put it “I wasted years of better health by not trying methylfolate sooner when I had the chance. When a doctor suggested I try Folapro several years ago, I dismissed it as a fad and erroneously thought that I was fine taking 2400 mcg of regular folate a day.” One of the functions of methylfolate is to increase absorption and retention in the body of both adb12 and mb12. Best if taken twice a day. Note, that many people are very sensitive to folate and can have strong start up reactions which may include anxiety, jitters, lightheadedness, fatigue, headache etc.
- B-12 / methylcobalamin – 5.0 mg (when I reached 5 mg with 3.2 mg folate the first time around, I had a strong reaction, so I’m titrating up again from a much lower starting point) – also called cobalamin, plays a key role in the methylation cycle and normal functioning of the brain and nervous system, and the formation of blood. It is involved in the metabolism of every cell of the human body, especially affecting DNA synthesis and regulation, but also fatty acid synthesis and energy production. B12 deficiency symptoms are wide ranging and serious enough to destroy your life but healing begins within minutes of supplementing. Best taken sublingually under the upper lip several times a day (brand matters with this one – I’m using Enzymatic Therapy and Jarrow is okay too).
- B-12 / dibencozide – 4 mg – one of the active forms of vitamin B12, also known as cobamamide, adenosylcobalamin or adb12, it generally has much milder and fewer startup reactions. Said to populate the neural mitochondria, energizing the central nervous system in a very pleasant way, improving mood and clarity of thought. Forms part of the Krebs cycle for production of energy. Best taken once a day early in the morning to avoid interference with sleep.
Minerals and elements
- boron chelate – 3 mg – vitally involved in bone metabolism. Boron is distributed throughout the body with the highest concentration in the parathyroid glands, followed by bones and dental enamel. It is essential for healthy bone and joint function, regulating the absorption and metabolism of calcium, magnesium and phosphorus through its influence on the parathyroid glands. Boron is for the parathyroids what iodine is for the thyroid. Enhances Vitamin D, inhibits enzymes that mediate the inflammatory cascade and are pertinent to therapies directed against inflammatory conditions, appears to play a significant role in human brain function and cognitive performance, and that it is an essential nutrient. Boron elevates circulation of serum concentrations of testosterone. Signs of possible deficiency include ADD/ADHD, osteoporosis, arthritis, fatigue, decreased motor function, decreased short-term memory, decreased brain function, and increased loss of calcium and magnesium in the urine. Reacts with Fluorine, Bromine and Chlorine as per Dr. Orlee. Non Toxic: Doses up to 18 mg of boron daily appear to be safe for adults even if taken for prolonged periods of time. Listed peripherally on companion nutrients for iodine page.
- calcium – 65 mg (as calcium ascorbate, 55 mg per capsule) – In AI, Dr. Cutler says “mercury and other heavy metal toxins (including methylmercury) interfere with calcium metabolism.” and he recommends 500 mg per day. I get all of my calcium by using this buffered form of vitamin C. This is a good combination because vitamin C is a laxative while calcium is constipating.
- chromium piccolinate – 1,000 mcg – in some studies chromium supplementation has been shown to improve some measure of glucose utilization. Blood sugar metabolism is often deranged by mercury and Dr. Cutler recommends 200 mcg with every meal plus some extra for 1000 mcg a day.
- iodine – 50 mg Iodoral + topical (keep away from Vit C) – I was clearly deficient in iodine before titrating up as evidenced by the rise in my body temperature. The Weston Price Foundation discusses iodine with this preface: Iodine is critical to human health, forming the basis of thyroid hormones and playing many other roles in human biochemistry. While the thyroid gland contains the body’s highest concentration of iodine, the salivary glands, brain, cerebrospinal fluid, gastric mucosea, breasts, ovaries and a part of the eye also concentrate iodine. In the brain, iodine is found in the choroid plexus, the area on the ventricles of the brain where cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) is produced, and in the substantia nigra, an area associated with Parkinson’s disease.
- lithium orotate – 5 mg – lithium deficiency is commonly found with mercury toxicity and my hair test shows a good example. Small amounts of lithium have been found useful for improving mood, and lithium is known to function in iodine management and as a neuroprotective agent. Some find it causes a touch of brain fog and take it at bedtime for that reason (dosing discussion here).
- magnesium glycinate – 2,400 mg (switched from citrate for better absorption/bowel tolerance) – Magnesium is needed for more than 300 biochemical reactions in the body. It helps maintain normal muscle and nerve function, keeps heart rhythm steady, supports a healthy immune system, and keeps bones strong. Magnesium also helps regulate blood sugar levels, promotes normal blood pressure, and is known to be involved in energy metabolism and protein synthesis.
manganese – 8 mg– Manganese is a trace mineral that is present in tiny amounts in the body. It is found mostly in bones, the liver, kidneys, and pancreas. Manganese helps the body form connective tissue, bones, blood clotting factors, and sex hormones. It also plays a role in fat and carbohydrate metabolism, calcium absorption, and blood sugar regulation. Manganese is also necessary for normal brain and nerve function. Manganese is a component of the antioxidant enzyme superoxide dismutase (SOD), which helps fight free radicals. Free radicals occur naturally in the body but can damage cell membranes and DNA. They may play a role in aging, as well as the development of a number of health conditions, including heart disease and cancer. Antioxidants, such as SOD, can help neutralize free radicals and reduce or even help prevent some of the damage they cause. Low levels of manganese in the body can contribute to infertility, bone malformation, weakness, and seizures. Consuming more than 11 mg per day of manganese could cause serious and harmful side effects.
- molybdenum -
1,000 mcg (increased to reduce copper) – according to Dr. Cutler, molybdenum is a cofactor for three enzymes often impaired in mercury toxicity.
- potassium - 5,000 mg – listed on Freddd’s methylation protocol as an absolutely critical supplement for basic healing to insure against hypokalemia (potentially fatal) triggered by sudden healing. Symptoms include weakness, lack of energy, muscle cramps, stomach disturbances, an irregular heartbeat, and an abnormal EKG. Hypokalemia is usually caused by the body losing too much potassium in the urine or intestines; it’s rarely caused by a lack of potassium in the diet. Potassium is a very important mineral for the proper function of all cells, tissues, and organs in the human body. It is also an electrolyte, a substance that conducts electricity in the body, along with sodium, chloride, calcium, and magnesium. Potassium is crucial to heart function and plays a key role in skeletal and smooth muscle contraction, making it important for normal digestive and muscular function. Many foods contain potassium, including all meats, some types of fish (such as salmon, cod, and flounder), and many fruits, vegetables, and legumes. Dairy products are also good sources of potassium. Side effects can include diarrhea, stomach irritation, and nausea. At higher doses, muscle weakness, slowed heart rate, and abnormal heart rhythm may occur. Contact your health care provider if you develop severe stomach pain, irregular heartbeat, chest pain, or other symptoms.
- selenium – 200 mcg – Dr. Cutler notes that selenium binds mercury tightly making less available for its other important roles. Toxicity can occur at fairly low doses so watch out for side effects like heart arrhythmias, insomnia and irritability. At the beginning of the 1990s it was discovered that the deiodinase enzymes which convert T4 (thyroxin, the thyroid prohormone) into T3 (triiodothyronine, the cellularly active hormone) are selenium enzymes (formed with the amino acid cysteine). This discovery has led to a lot of research studies on the effects of selenium, iodine, and their interactions revealing that selenium protects the thyroid from sustaining damage which can lead ultimately to cancer. Selenium also performs other important roles in the body – the most important of which is probably its role as the body’s best antioxidant (anti-peroxidant). It performs this role as part of glutathione peroxidase (GSHPx or GPX). As part of GPX, selenium prevents lipids and fats from being peroxidized (oxidized), which literally means that it prevents fats from going rancid (this can be seen on your skin as “age spots” or “liver spots” (autopsies show that skin “liver spots” are accompanied by similar spots of peroxidized fats in the liver.) Therefore selenium protects all of the cellular membranes, which are made up of fats, from peroxidation. Peroxidation of cellular membranes reduces the ability of the membrane to pass nutrients including minerals and vitamins, so selenium deficiency is the first step toward developing the many problems caused by nutrient deficiencies.
- strontium citrate – 340 mg – for osteoporosis, on off-round days only – Strontium ranelate is registered as a prescription drug in more than 70 countries for the treatment of post-menopausal osteoporosis to reduce the risk of vertebral and hip fractures. In the United States, Strontium Ranelate is not approved by the FDA. I use strontium citrate which does not have a Wikipedia page yet but if you search online you will find lots of testimonials from people who’ve used it successfully to restore their bone density.
vanadium sulfate – 10 mg (at breakfast) – improves insulin sensitivity and benefits may endure after use of vanadium sulfate is discontinued.
- zinc -
50 mg – according to Dr. Cutler, zinc is competitive with mercury and copper thereby diminishing some of their toxic effects. he also notes that zinc should be reduced from 100 to 50 mg after you start chelation with Lipoic Acid. Zinc is involved in numerous aspects of cellular metabolism. It is required for the catalytic activity of approximately 100 enzymes and it plays a role in immune function, protein synthesis, wound healing, DNA synthesis, and cell division. Zinc also supports normal growth and development during pregnancy, childhood, and adolescence and is required for proper sense of taste and smell. A daily intake of zinc is required to maintain a steady state because the body has no specialized zinc storage system.
- dimercaptosuccinic acid (DMSA) – 25 mg (every 2 hrs) – binds lead and mercury to remove it from your body (but does not cross the blood brain barrier). With a half-life of 2 1/2 to 3 1/2 hours it should be taken at least every four hours (including night doses) for at least three days at a time. May aggravate or cause neutropenia according to Dr. Cutler. Causes heavy oxidative stress, so very important to take antioxidants while chelating. Also effective for chelating antimony, bismuth, cadmium, thallium, and possibly nickel, tungsten, palladium, platinum, silver, gold and arsenic.
- alpha lipoic acid (ALA) - 60 mg (every 2 hrs) – binds mercury like DMSA but also has the advantage of crossing the blood brain barrier to chelate mercury from your brain (and internal organs). According to Dr. Cutler, the effectiveness of ALA with lead is unknown but may possibly remove it from the brain along with mercury. Increases liver secretion of bile, darkening and loosening stools. Like DMSA, it must be taken every 3 to 4 hours (including night doses ) for minimum of three days at a time. Also useful for chelating antimony, arsenic, palladium, platinum, thallium and possibly cadmium, tungsten, lead and silver. Apart from its properties as a chelator, Alpha-lipoic acid is an antioxidant that is made by the body and is found in every cell, where it helps turn glucose into energy (reactions involving two key enzyme complexes of the Krebs Cycle require ALA as a cofactor). Other antioxidants work only in water (such as vitamin C) or fatty tissues (such as vitamin E), but alpha-lipoic acid is both fat- and water-soluble. That means it can work throughout the body. You can expect Lipoic Acid to exacerbate the following symptoms: increased urine volume, obsessive thinking, emotional volatility, difficulty relating to people, and apathy. Your liver will excrete more inorganic mercury but less methylmercury, copper, zinc and cadmium. ALA is listed on Freddd’s methylation protocol as a possibly critical show-stopper cofactor.
sodium bicarbonate / baking soda – 1/2 tsp mixed with 3 tablespoons lime juice – used to alkalinize the urine which aids chelation of cadmium by preventing transfer of cadmium to the kidneys where it may cause damage.
- cortisol – 8 pellets of isocort / probably 20 mg
- DHEA - 10 mg – the most common hormone precursor in the body, is intimately associated with youthful and healthy functioning across a range of physiological systems. Used for slowing or reversing aging, improving thinking skills in older people, and slowing the progress of Alzheimer’s disease. Athletes and other people use DHEA to increase muscle mass, strength, and energy. But DHEA use is banned by the National Collegiate Athletic Association (NCAA). DHEA is also used by men for erectile dysfunction (ED), and by healthy women and women who have low levels of certain hormones to improve well-being and sexuality. Some people try DHEA to treat systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE), weak bones (osteoporosis), multiple sclerosis (MS), low levels of steroid hormones (Addison’s disease), depression, schizophrenia, chronic fatigue syndrome (CFS), and to slow the progression of Parkinson’s disease. It is also used for preventing heart disease, breast cancer, diabetes, and metabolic syndrome.
- vitamin D – 600 IU (ranging up to 4,000 IU) - Vitamin D, also known as the ‘sunshine vitamin’, is a steroid hormone precursor. It was originally thought to play a role only in the mineralization of bones and teeth by maintaining the correct phosphorous/calcium ratio. But over time research has linked low vitamin D levels with obesity, diabetes, depression, cardiovascular disease, autoimmune disease, osteoporosis and cancer. According to the CDC, in 2006 a whopping one fourth of the population was deficient in vitamin D.
pregnenolone – 10 mg– improves energy, vision, memory, clarity of thinking, wellbeing.
Arginine – 6 g (added 5/24/13)
- Carnitine Fumarate – 2 g (added 5/30/13, take 30 min before meals)
Lysine – 2 g (added 5/25/13)
- Taurine – 1,000 mg – increases the action of insulin, improving glucose tolerance, and acts as an antioxidant, vital for the proper function of the minerals potassium, calcium, magnesium, and sodium. Taurine regulates heart rhythm, cardiac contraction, blood pressure, and platelet aggregation, and regulates the excitability of neurons. It detoxifies liver cells of various toxins. It helps form bile acids and maintains cell membrane stability. It reduces the synthesis of lipids and cholesterol that are associated with atherosclerosis. Protects against toxicity of various substances (such as lead and cadmium). Additionally, supplementation with taurine has been shown to prevent oxidative stress induced by exercise. In cells, taurine keeps potassium and magnesium inside the cell, while keeping excessive sodium out. In this sense, it works like a diuretic.
Herbal and other
- D-Ribose – 20 g – D-ribose is a simple sugar molecule with a wealth of functions in human and animal biology. Perhaps its most fundamental role is as a component of ATP, the universal energy carrier in the body’s cells. ATP molecules store energy as they are built up and release it as they are broken down—the more energy a cell requires, the more ATP it consumes. In fact, humans “burn” an amount of ATP equivalent to their own body weight every day! Every single process undergone by living cells requires energy—even at rest, we are continually breaking down ATP molecules. And that means that we have a constant need for the components of ATP molecules, including D-ribose. Cells can make new supplies of D-ribose, but the process is considerably slower than the breakdown of ATP—this can leave a substantial “deficit” in the amount of energy a cell can utilize. In fact, it has been shown that even an overnight rest period is not long enough for a person to recover their normal ATP levels after a bout of strenuous exercise. When cells don’t have enough D-ribose to restore ATP levels quickly back to normal, they turn to alternate energy-generating processes. These are less efficient and produce much higher levels of damaging waste products that cause muscle burning and cramping and that can also inflict long-term damage through the oxidant stress they induce in muscle and heart tissues, leading to further dysfunction, injury, and pain. Fortunately, research is demonstrating that ATP levels can be speedily brought back to normal if sufficient D-ribose is available. Starting dose for people with fibromyalgia – 15 to 30 g per day. According to Freddd, D-Ribose “enhances adenosylb12, l-carnitine, alpha lipoic acid, improves exercise recovery and energy.”
- milk thistle – 4 caps (for liver support)
- vitamin K complex – 1 mg (mk-7 for low calcium)
- CoQ10 (ubiquinol form) – 200 mg - The synthesis of CoQ10 in the body requires methylation (this also accounts for deficits in a variety of other important substances, including carnitine, choline, and creatine). This oil-soluble, vitamin-like substance is present in most eukaryotic cells, primarily in the mitochondria. It is a component of the electron transport chain and participates in aerobic cellular respiration, functioning in every cell of the body to synthesize energy in the form of ATP. Ninety-five percent of the human body’s energy is generated this way. Therefore, those organs with the highest energy requirements—such as the heart, liver and kidney—have the highest CoQ10 concentrations. Meat and fish are the richest source of dietary CoQ10 and levels over 50 mg/kg can be found in beef, pork, and chicken heart, and in chicken liver. Dairy products are much poorer sources of CoQ10 compared to animal tissues. Vegetable oils are also quite rich in CoQ10. Broccoli, grape, and cauliflower are modest sources of CoQ10. Most fruit and berries represent a poor to very poor source of CoQ10, with the exception of avocado, with a relatively high CoQ10 content. If you take either form of Q10, some of it is readily converted to the other form to maintain this condition of equilibrium. The reason I call the older form of this nutrient energy-Q10 is because it is the form of Q10 that is used in your mitochondria3 to make energy. Not surprisingly, this rather simple and important fact is omitted by those trying to push the more expensive version. Furthermore, this energy-Q10 is turning out to be a major cell communication regulation molecule, as it has been shown to significantly activate over 694 different genes4! This includes the reduction of the primary inflammatory gene signal, NF-kappaB 5. The energy-Q10 form also enables you to activate uncoupling proteins6 when you exercise, increasing the amount of fat you can burn off. Hardly an inferior substance.
- trimethyglycine (TMG) – 1,000 mg (methylation support, protects liver cells from toxins, may increase alertness and mood)
- S-Adenosylmethionine (SAMe) – 400 mg- is a naturally occurring compound that is found in almost every tissue and fluid in the body. It is involved in many important processes. SAMe plays a role in the immune system, maintains cell membranes, and helps produce and break down brain chemicals, such as serotonin, melatonin, and dopamine. It works with vitamin B12 and folate (vitamin B9). Being deficient in either vitamin B12 or folate may reduce levels of SAMe in your body. Numerous scientific studies have shown that SAMe helps relieve the pain of osteoarthritis, and other studies suggest that SAMe may help treat depression. Researchers have also examined SAMe’s use in the treatment of fibromyalgia and liver disease, with mixed results. SAMe has been on Life Extension’s TOP TEN list (for 15+ years) of the most important steps to take to ensure optimal longevity. SAMe has been recommended to aging individuals not to just feel better, but also to protect the brain, liver, joints, and other tissues of the body like no other substance.